Jack Kilby invented the first working integrated circuit (IC) in 1958. Warren P. Waters contributed to the development of the second generation of integrated circuits at Hughes Aircraft in Newport Beach, California. Several of his early patents from the 1950’s involved discovering better conducting materials for the fusion of junctions in these very early integrated circuits. These early patents helped to make better transistors possible. Throughout his life, Warren Waters experimented with various elements, while developing better and more efficient fusion materials. At first he used alkali metal alloys such as gallium. This was done to make a better connection with the circuits. Later, he developed the silicon based wafer to hold the integrated circuits. He also experimented with using an acid resist to etch the circuits onto the silicon wafer. His knowledge of photography, crystalline structures, solid state physics and chemical processes all contributed to his scientific discoveries, which led to these early devices and patents.